【영어 25문】 ①책형
【문 1】다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은?
Short-term stress can boost your productivity and
immunity. But when stress lingers, you may find
yourself struggling. People show some signs when they
suffer from more stress than is healthy. First, you can’t
concentrate. In times of stress, your body goes into
fight or flight mode, pouring its efforts into keeping
safe from danger. That's why it may be hard to
concentrate on a single task, and you're more likely to
get distracted. "The brain's response becomes all about
survival", says Heidi Hanna, author of Stressaholic: 5
Steps to Transform Your Relationship with Stress.
"The fear response takes up all the energy of the brain
for how to protect yourself." Second, you tend to get
pessimistic. Because you're primed for survival, your
brain has more circuits to pay attention to negatives
than to positives. "When you're feeling overwhelmed by
the chaos of life, take time to appreciate everything
that's going well. You have to be intentional about
practicing positivity", Hanna says.
① Advantages of short-term stress
② Why people keep distracted
③ Dangers of pessimism
④ Signs of excessive stress
【문 2】다음 글의 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은?
Sometimes, the meaning of analogies may not be
obvious. For instance, what comes to mind when you
hear the phrase "white elephant" or "black sheep"? The
expression "white elephant" comes from Thailand. Long
ago, in Thailand, white elephants were very rare.
Whenever one was found, it was given to the king.
The king would then give it as a royal "gift" to
someone he did not like since the beautiful animal cost
a fortune to take care of. Nobody could refuse such a
present, but it could financially ruin its owner.
Moreover, it was a serious crime to mistreat a present
from the king. Even riding it was not allowed, so a
white elephant was almost useless. The expression,
introduced in England in the 18th century, turned out
to be useful for describing (A) but (B) public
buildings. Today, it is used to refer to anything that
might be (A) and (B) .
① valuable … unprotected
② costly … worthless
③ extravagant … appropriate
④ priceless … eco-friendly
【문 3】다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지
When asked, nearly everyone says the proper response to
a compliment is "Thank you". But researchers found that
when actually given a compliment, only a third of people
accept it so ①simply. The difficulty lies in the fact that
every compliment ("What a nice sweater!") has two levels:
a gift component (accept or reject) and a content
component (agree or disagree). The recipient is confronted
with a ②dilemma — how to respond simultaneously to
both: "I must agree with the speaker and thank him for
the gift of a compliment while avoiding self-praise."
Interestingly, women and men are both ③less likely to
accept a compliment coming from a man than from a
woman. When a man says, "Nice scarf," a woman is more
likely to respond ④affirmatively: "Thanks. My sister
knitted it for me." But when one woman tells another,
"That's a beautiful sweater," the recipient is likely to
disagree or deflect. "It was on sale, and they didn’t even
have the colour I wanted."
【문 4】다음 글의 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은?
The chairperson should seek to have a progressive
discussion that leads towards a consensus view. As the
discussion develops, the chairperson should be
searching to find the direction in which the weight of
members’ views is pointing. If, (A) , there are
five members and the chair senses that two want to
follow course A and a third follow course B, the focus
should quickly be turned towards the remaining two
members. The chair turns to member 4. If he or she
wants course A, the chairperson simply has the job of
getting first the other neutral (member 5) and then the
dissenting member 3 to assent to the fact that course
A is the majority view. If, (B) , member 4 wants
course B, then member 5’s view is the critical one,
which the chairperson must now bring in. And so, very
quickly, you can sense where the balance of opinion is
pointing, and lead the meeting towards unanimous
*consensus 의견 일치 **unanimous 만장일치의
① whereas likewise
② for example therefore
③ whereas for instance
④ for example on the other hand
1교시 ①책형 전체 20-16
【영어 25문】 ①책형
【문 5】다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?
As early as 525 BCE, a Greek named Theagenes, who
lived in southern Italy, identified myths as scientific
analogies or allegories -- an attempt to explain natural
occurrences that people could not understand. To him,
for instance, the mythical stories of gods fighting
among themselves were allegories representing the
forces of nature that oppose each other, such as fire
and water. This is clearly the source of a great many
explanatory or "causal" myths, beginning with the
accounts found in every society or civilization that
explain the creation of the universe, the world, and
humanity. These "scientific" myths attempted to explain
seasons, the rising and setting of the sun, the course
of the stars. Myths like these were, in some ways, the
forerunners of science. Old mythical explanations for
the workings of nature began to be replaced by a
rational attempt to understand the world, especially in
the remarkable era of Greek science and philosophy
that began about 500 BCE.
① Myths: Basis of Scientific Inquiry
② Dispelling the Myths about Science
③ How Are Creation Myths Universal?
④ How Much Myths Affect Our World Views
【문 6】다음 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은?
Every year in early October, Helsinki's harbor changes
into a lively, colorful set for the Baltic Herring Festival,
first held in 1743. Fishermen from all over Finland
bring their latest catch to Helsinki to take part in one
of Finland's oldest festivals. Sellers in bright orange
tents line the harbor and sell herring in every
imaginable form: fried, pickled, smoked, in bottles, in
cans, in soup, on pizza, and in sandwiches. The choices
are endless. On the first day of the festival,
competitions are held to select the most delicious
seasoned herring and the best herring surprise. Herring
surprise is a traditional dish made with herring, cheese,
and onions. The winner of each competition is awarded
① The festival has been held in every second year since
② Sellers set up orange tents along the harbor and sell
③ The competition of the festival is limited to Helsinki
④ A trophy is only given to the winner of the best
【문 7】다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지
As a youngster I shared a bedroom with my older sister.
Although the age difference was slight, in intellect and
maturity she viewed me from across the great divide. Her
serious academic and cultural pursuits contrasted sharply
with my activities of closely monitoring the radio shows.
Because of these ①dissimilar interests and the limited
resource of one bedroom between us, we frequently had
conflict over what constituted disturbing and inconsiderate
behavior. For months, there were attempts to ②compromise
by "splitting the difference" in our divergent viewpoints or
practicing "share and share alike." Even with written
schedules and agreements plus parental mediation, the
controversy persisted. Ultimately the matter was ③
aggravated when we both came to recognize that considerable
time and energy were being wasted as we maneuvered and
positioned ourselves for the next mathematical compromise.
With recognition of a ④common interest in solving the
problem for our mutual benefit, we were able to think
beyond physical resources of space, hours, and materials.
The satisfying solution that met both of our needs was the
purchase of earphones for the radio.
【문 8】다음 글의 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은?
One of the most popular of computer games in the
world is called Age of Empires. For several months my
own ten-year-old son was all but addicted to it. Its
organizing premise is that the history of the world is
the history of imperial conflict. Rival political entities
vie with one another to control finite resources: people,
fertile land, forests, gold mines and waterways. In their
endless struggles the competing empires must strike a
balance between the need for economic development
and the exigencies of warfare. The player who is too
aggressive soon runs out of resources if he has not
taken the trouble to cultivate his existing territory, to
expand its population and to accumulate gold. The
player who focuses too much on getting rich may find
himself __________________ if he meanwhile neglects
*exigencies 긴급 사태
① immune to illness
② tolerant to change
③ vulnerable to invasion
④ addicted to entertainment
1교시 ①책형 전체 20-17
【영어 25문】 ①책형
【문 9】다음 글에서 전체 흐름과 관계 없는 문장은?
Can an old cell phone help save the rainforests? As a
matter of fact, it can. Illegal logging in the rainforests has
been a problems for years, but not much has been done
about it because catching illegal loggers is difficult. ①To
help solve this problem, an American engineer, Topher
White, invented a device called RFCx with discarded cell
phones. ②When the device, which is attached to a tree,
picks up the sound of chainsaws, it sends an alert message
to the rangers' cell phones. ③This provides the rangers
with the information they need to locate the loggers and
stop the illegal logging. ④Destruction of the rainforest is
caused by logging, farming, mining, and other human
activities and among these, logging is the main reason for
the nature's loss. The device has been tested in Indonesia
and has proven to work well. As a result, it is now being
used in the rainforests in Africa and South America.
【문10】다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?
In any symphony, the composer and the conductor
have a variety of responsibilities. They must make sure
that the brass horns work in synch with the
woodwinds, that the percussion instruments don’t
drown out the violas. But perfecting those relationships
-- important though it is -- is not the ultimate goal of
their efforts. What conductors and composers desire is
the ability to marshal these relationships into a whole
whose magnificence exceeds the sum of its parts. So it
is with the high-concept aptitude of Symphony. The
boundary crosser, the inventor, and the metaphor maker
all understand the importance of relationships. But the
Conceptual Age also demands the ability to grasp the
relationships between relationships. This meta-ability
goes by many names -- systems thinking, gestalt
thinking, holistic thinking.
*marshal 모으다, 결집시키다
① The Power of Music
② Seeing the Big Picture
③ The Essence of Creativity
④ Collaboration Makes a Difference
【문11】다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은?
In criminal cases, the burden of proof is often on the
prosecutor to persuade the trier (whether judge or jury) ①
that the accused is guilty beyond a reasonable doubt of
every element of the crime charged. If the prosecutor fails
to prove this, a verdict of not guilty is ②rendered. This
standard of proof contrasts with civil cases, ③where the
claimant generally needs to show a defendant is liable on
the balance of probabilities (more than 50% probable). In
the USA, this is ④referring to as the preponderance of the
【문12】다음 밑줄 친 This system이 의미하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은?
In order to meet the demands of each course,
Escoffier modernized meal preparation by dividing his
kitchens into five different sections. The first section
made cold dishes and organized the supplies for the
whole kitchen. The second section took care of soups,
vegetables, and desserts. The third dealt with dishes
that were roasted, grilled, or fried. The fourth section
focused only on sauces, and the last was for making
pastries. This allowed restaurant kitchens to make their
dishes much more quickly than in the past. If a
customer ordered eggs Florentine, for example, one
section would cook the eggs, another would make the
sauce, and yet another would make the pastry. Then,
the head chef would assemble the dish before it was
served to the customer. This system was so efficient
that it is still used in many restaurants today.
① The competition of the different sections in the kitchen
② The extended room for preparing the necessary
③ The distribution of the separate dishes to the customer
by the head chef
④ The kitchen being divided into different sections to
prepare a meal
【문13】다음 글의 내용을 한 문장으로 요약하고자 한다. 빈칸 (A),
(B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은?
McAdams makes an important point about identity: It
is a story you tell about yourself to make sense out of
what has happened in the past and the kind of person
you are now. From this perspective, it is not essential
that the story be true. I see myself as culturally
adventurous (that is, high on openness). I happen to
believe this is true -- that is, compared with others, I
would be relatively open to trying new things on a
menu, taking up new activities, visiting new places, and
so on. But, from McAdams’s perspective, when we’re
talking about identity, whether our beliefs about
ourselves are true or not is pretty much irrelevant.
According to McAdams, our identity is a(n) (A)
that we create, which in itself may or may not be
① adventure exciting
② image visible
③ door available
④ narrative factual
1교시 ①책형 전체 20-18
【영어 25문】 ①책형
【문14】다음 밑줄 친 단어(어구)가 가리키는 대상이 나머지 셋과 다른
Watson had been watching ①his companion intently ever
since he had sat down to the breakfast table. Holmes
happened to look up and catch his eye.
"Well, Watson, what are you thinking about?" he asked.
"Yes, Holmes. I was thinking how superficial are these
tricks of yours, and how wonderful it is that the public
should continue to show interest in them."
"I quite agree," said Holmes. "In fact, I have a recollection
that I have ③myself made a similar remark."
"Your methods," said Watson severely, "are really easily
"No doubt", Holmes answered with a smile. "Perhaps you
will ④yourself give an example of this method of
【문15】다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은?
In the 1860s, the populations of Manhattan and Brooklyn
were rapidly increasing, and ①so was the number of the
commuters between them. Thousands of people took boats
and ferries across the East River every day, but these
forms of transport were unstable and frequently stopped by
bad weather. Many New Yorkers wanted to have a bridge
directly ②connected Manhattan and Brooklyn because it
would make their commute quicker and safer. Unfortunately,
because of the East River's great width and rough tides,
③it would be difficult to build anything on it. It was also
a very busy river at that time, with hundreds of ships
constantly ④sailing on it.
【문16】다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은?
In recent years, peer-peer (P2P) lending has ①become the
poster child of the alternative finance industry. In a 2015
report Morgan Stanley predicted that such marketplace
lending ②would command $150 billion to $490 billion
globally by 2020. P2P lending is the practice of lending
money to individuals or businesses through online services
that match lenders-investors directly with borrowers, ③
enabled both parties to go around traditional providers such
as banks. Lenders typically achieve better rates of return,
while borrowers — individuals and SMEs (small and
medium-sized enterprises) — get access to flexible and
competitively priced loans. For investors, the benefits are
attractive. Being ④matched with a borrower can take
anywhere from a few days to a few hours. And where a
bank might typically earn under 2% on personal lending,
P2P returns can be more than three times that.
【문17】다음 글에 드러난 " I "의 심경으로 가장 적절한 것은?
So when I stood at the plate in that Old Timers
game, staring at a pitcher whose hair was gray, and
when he threw what used to be his fastball but what
now was just a pitch that floated in toward my chest,
and when I swung and made contact and heard the
familiar thwock, and I dropped my bat and began to
run, convinced that I had done something fabulous,
forgetting my old gauges, forgetting that my arms and
legs lacked the power they once had, forgetting that
you age, the walls get farther away, and when I looked
up and saw what I had first thought to be a solid hit,
maybe a home run, now coming down just beyond the
infield toward the waiting glove of the second baseman,
no more than a pop-up, a wet firecracker, a dud, and a
voice in my head yelled, "Drop it! Drop it!" as that
second baseman squeezed his glove around my final
offering to this maddening game.
① jealous ② delighted
③ passionate ④ disappointed
【문18】다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지
In our daily, conscious activity we generally experience a
①separation between the mind and the body. We think
about our bodies and our physical actions. Animals do not
experience this division. When we start to learn any skill
that has a physical component, this separation becomes
even ②less apparent. We have to think about the various
actions involved, the steps we have to follow. We are
aware of our slowness and of how our bodies respond in
an awkward way. At certain points, as we ③improve, we
have glimpses of how this process could function
differently, of how it might feel to practice the skill fluidly,
with the mind not getting in the way of the body. With
such glimpses, we know what to aim for. If we take our
practice far enough the skill becomes ④automatic, and we
have the sensation that the mind and the body are
operating as one.
【문19】다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은?
In 2000, scientists at Harvard University suggested a
neurological way of ①explaining Mona Lisa’s elusive smile.
When a viewer looks at her eyes, the mouth is in peripheral
vision, ②which sees in black and white. This accentuates
the shadows at the corners of her mouth, making the smile
③seems broader. But the smile diminishes when you look
straight at it. It is the variability of her smile, the fact that
it changes when you look away from it, ④that makes her
smile so alive, so mysterious.
1교시 ①책형 전체 20-19
【영어 25문】 ①책형
【문20】글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한
So around about the time we are two, our brains will
already have distinct and individual patterns.
When we are babies our brains develop in relationship
with our earliest caregivers. Whatever feelings and thought
processes they give to us are mirrored, reacted to and laid
down in our growing brains. ( ① ) When things go well,
our parents and caregivers also mirror and validate our
moods and mental states, acknowledging and responding to
what we are feeling. ( ② ) It is then that our left brains
mature sufficiently to be able to understand language. ( ③ )
This dual development enables us to integrate our two
brains, to some extent. ( ④ ) We become able to begin to
use the left brain to put into language the feelings of the
【문21】글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한
Nowadays, it is much easier to find out where you are
and which way to go because you have one of the
world's greatest inventions at your fingertips.
For thousands of years, humans had difficulty trying to
figure out where they were. ( ① ) So, they devoted a great
deal of time and effort to resolving this problem. ( ② )
They drew complicated maps, constructed great landmarks
to keep themselves on the right path, and even learned to
navigate by looking up at the stars. ( ③ ) As long as you
have a Global Positioning System(GPS) receiver, you never
have to worry about taking a wrong turn. ( ④ ) Your
GPS receiver can tell you your exact location and give you
directions to wherever you need to go, no matter where
you are on the planet!
【문22】다음 글의 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은?
A great ad is a wonderful thing; it’s why you love
advertising. But what you’re looking at is only half of
what’s there, and the part you can’t see has more to
do with that ad’s success than the part you can. Before
those surface features (the terrific headline or visual or
storyline or characters or voiceover or whatever) can
work their wonders, the ad has to have something to
say, something that matters. Either it addresses real
consumer motives and real consumer problems, or it
speaks to no one. To make great ads, then, you have
to start where they start: with ______________________.
① the effective tool
② the invisible part
③ the corporate needs
④ the surface features
【문23】글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한
Wham-O, the visionary toy company known for its
Hula-Hoops bought the rights a year later and renamed
the flying disc Frisbee.
Walter Fredrick Morrison and his girlfriend, Lucile Nay,
discovered that flying discs were marketable when a
stranger asked to buy the metal cake pan they were flipping
through the air on a beach in California. ( ① ) By 1938, the
couple were selling the 5-cent pans for 25 cents a piece. ( ② )
Later, Morrison tried his hand at developing a flying disc far
better than that of a flying cake pan. ( ③ ) Together with
Franscioni, he created the Pluto Platter. ( ④ ) By the
mid-1960s it got so popular that you could see a Frisbee
stuck on almost every roof of houses.
【문24】다음 글의 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은?
Paradoxically, the initial discovery of an interest often
goes unnoticed by the discoverer. In other words, when
you just start to get interested in something, you may
not even realize that’s what’s happening. The emotion
of boredom is always self-conscious -- you know it
when you feel it -- but when your attention is
attracted to a new activity or experience, you may
have very little reflective appreciation of what’s
happening to you. This means that, at the start of a
new endeavor, asking yourself nervously every few
days whether you’ve found your passion is ___________.
① relevant ② necessary
③ premature ④ uncommon
【문25】다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은?
After lots of trial and error, Richard finally created a
system of flashing LED lights, ①powered by an old car
battery that was charged by a solar panel. Richard set the
lights up along the fence. At night, the lights could be
seen from outside the stable and took turns flashing, ②
which appeared as if people were moving around with
torches. Never again ③lions crossed Richard's fence.
Richard called his system Lion Lights. This simple and
practical device did no harm to lions, so human beings,
cattle, and lions were finally able to make peace with ④
1교시 ①책형 전체 20-20